Monitoring of aquatic environments
Monitoring of the aquatic ecosystem parameters provides valuable information on how environmental loading and subsequent changes affect the water quality and aquatic environment of the area.The renovation work for the Pechenganikel Combine is expected to reduce the loading levels of the area. There is a need for monitoring the changes occurring in the aquatic environment of the border area, both the Lake Inarijärvi and the main watercourse of the Pasvik River, and the small lakes distant from the river. The lakes to be monitored are located in the regions of Jarfjord and Vätsäri and in the Pechenganikel area and south from there. Lake Inarijärvi and River Pasvik The impacts caused by industrial emissions are very evident in the main watercourse of the Pasvik River as the downstream sections of the river are in significantly poorer conditions than the upstream sections and the Lake Inarijärvi area. The monitoring programme is recommended to be implemented in a way that it forms a continuum from more polluted areas near the smelters to farther away. Experts from five different organisations in Finland, Norway and Russia are responsible for the implementation of the monitoring programme. Joint monitoring of water quality was initiated in 2007. The monitoring programme includes annual analyzes of water quality and less frequently conducted sediment sampling. In the 2014 update of the monitoring programme also biological monitoring of plankton, benthic diatoms, benthic macroinvertebrate, aquatic macrophyte and fish communities is recommended to be started. Water quality monitoring indicates the chemical state of a water body. By monitoring water quality, pH, conductivity, colour alterations, metal concentrations and nutrient content, among others, it is possible to obtain information pertaining to the development of the state of the lake environment when pollutant levels change. The pollutants ending up in the water settle slowly to the beds and accumulate in the sediments, which thicken approximately one millimeter per year. By studying sediments it is also possible to follow the changes in the state of the environment at different times. Monitoring programme studies heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
Chalcophile elements combine readily with sulfur (sulfides) instead of oxygen (oxides).Chalcophile elements include mercury, cadmium, arsenic lead and zinc, among others.
Implementation Guidelines State of the Environment in the Norwegian, Finnish and Russian Border Area Environmental Monitoring Programme for Aquatic Ecosystems in the Norwegian, Finnish and Russian Border Area – Updated Implementation Guidelines Environmental Challenges in the Norwegian, Finnish and Russian Border Area Pasvik Water Quality Report Pasvik Water Quality until 2013